The exhaust system collects the exhaust gases from the cylinders, removes harmful substances, reduces the level of noise and discharges the purified exhaust gases at a suitable point of the vehicle away from its occupants. The exhaust system can consist of one or two channels depending on the engine. The flow resistance must be selected so that the exhaust backpressure affects engine performance as little as possible. To ensure that the exhaust system functions perfectly, it must be viewed as a whole and developed accordingly. This means that its components must be coordinated by the design engineers in line with the specific vehicle and engine.
Structure of an exhaust system
Today’s exhaust systems have very little in common with the simple exhausts used in the past. In more modern cars, they basically consist of a front section with
- the exhaust manifold,
- the purification system and
- the connecting pipes, together with a rear section with the silencer system and pipes.
The entire system is connected to the floor pan by means of flexible mounting elements. The number of catalytic converters and silencers depends on the type of engine, engine performance and the required emission values.
The exhaust system is designed to remove gases produced during your engine’s combustion process. The major components of an exhaust system include:
- Exhaust manifolds connect directly to the cylinder head for removing each cylinder’s exhaust and combining it into one pipe.
- Oxygen sensors measure the ratio of oxygen to exhaust and provide your car’s ECU data that allow it to maximize fuel economy by increasing or decreasing the amount of fuel delivered to the engine.
- Catalytic converter changes environmentally harmful carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons to water vapor and carbon dioxide to minimise the environmental impact of your vehicle.
- Mufflers use baffles to bounce the exhaust around and reduce the noise that comes from the combustion process of your engine.
- Exhaust pipes allow exhaust gases to pass out and into the air usually at the rear of the vehicle.